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Makki and Madani Surahs List in The Holy Quran

Being a Muslim, it is essential to have basic knowledge of the Quran. To study them well, you need to know Makki and Madani Surahs in Quran. It is pleasant to hear whether the orator tells about the surah, whether it is Makki or Madani Surahs. 

These surahs are categorized based on where Holy Prophet Hazrat Muhammad PBUH resided when surahs were revealed. One hundred fourteen surahs in total are present in the Holy Quran. Most surahs are Makki surahs, as Holy Prophet Hazrat Muhammad PBUH spent 13 years of his prophethood in Mecca. 

The Quran, the holy book of Islam, is divided into two main categories of Surahs (chapters) – Makki and Madni. These terms refer to the places where the verses of the Quran were revealed: Makkah and Madinah, two significant cities in Islamic history.

Some surahs were revealed after the migration of the Holy Prophet Hazrat Muhammad PBUH to Madinah. He spent ten years of prophethood in Madinah. So, the surahs are categorized in this way. This distinction is crucial for understanding the historical and contextual background of the Quranic revelations and the message they convey. In this comprehensive article, we will delve into the differences between Makki and Madni Surahs, their historical context, and their significance in the life of the Prophet Muhammad and the development of Islam.

In this article, I will give you a detailed description of the knowledge of Makki and Madani Surahs in the Quran.

What are Makki and Madani Surahs?

Islam was completed in 23 years. The prophethood of Hazrat Muhammad PBUH was divided into two periods. One period was spent in Mecca, and the other was in Madinah. Hazrat Gabriel sent the Holy Quran throughout the whole time.

The Quranic verses were revealed to address various aspects of the lives of the early Muslims and to provide them with guidance on matters of faith, morality, and law. The revelations were not arranged in a chronological order but were compiled and organized after the Prophet’s death.

The Quran is considered the literal word of God (Allah) as revealed to the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) over a period of 23 years. This divine revelation began in the year 610 CE and continued until 632 CE, the year of the Prophet’s death. 

The part of the Holy Quran revealed in Mecca is called Makki surah, and the Part of the Quran revealed in Madinah is called Madani surahs. Both these surah cover topics that are entirely different from one another and contain different types of information

What are the themes of Makki Surahs?

In the early days of Islam, it was essential to guide the people about the oneness of Allah Almighty. So, the theme of Makki surahs is different form madani surahs. When we compare Makki and Madani surahs in Quran, we can see that the topics discussed in Makki surah are not the same as those of Madani surahs.

Makki Surahs are those revealed in the city of Makkah before the migration of the Prophet Muhammad to Madinah. The Makki period covers the first 13 years of the Prophet’s mission, from 610 to 622 CE.

It is important to note that while the Makki and Madni Surahs have distinct characteristics, they are interconnected and complement each other. The Makki Surahs lay the spiritual and moral foundations, while the Madni Surahs build upon them to address the practical challenges of a growing Muslim community.

During this time, the Prophet received revelations while he was in Makkah, which was his hometown. Makki Surahs are typically characterized by their shorter length, lyrical and poetic style, and a strong focus on fundamental theological concepts and moral teachings.

It was essential to rectify the image of Allah in the Holy City as people worshipped idols and were not ready to accept the revival of the religion of Hazrat Ibrahim, so Makki surah has verses that covered the topic of sole power belonging to Allah Almighty. 

Together, the Makki and Madni Surahs provide comprehensive guidance for all aspects of life, encompassing theology, morality, law, and governance. They offer a holistic approach to living a balanced and just life in accordance with Islamic principles.

Makki surah covers the following topics

  • Oneness of Allah
  • Paradise/ hell
  • Comfort to Holy Prophet PBUH
  • Stories of previous nations
  • Rewards and punishments for the people who believed in Islam.  

Makki Surah in Quran

The surah revealed when Prophet Hazrat Muhammad PBUH was present in Mecca is known as Makki surah. In Holy Quran, out of 114 surahs, 86 surahs are Makki surahs. These surahs describe the beliefs that needed to be changed. The main point in Makki surah is about the oneness of Allah Almighty. People of Mecca believed in multiple gods, so it was necessary to change this belief, which was the top priority. Holy Prophet preached people of Mecca about the oneness of god.

Makki Surahs refer to the chapters of the Quran that were revealed during the Prophet Muhammad’s time in Mecca, prior to the migration to Medina. These Surahs are characterized by their poetic and eloquent style and often deal with theological and spiritual themes. They focus on faith, monotheism, the Day of Judgment, the stories of previous prophets, and the challenges and persecutions faced by the early Muslim community in Mecca.

The transition from Makki to Madni revelations reflects the evolving needs of the Muslim community and the progressive development of Islamic teachings. It also demonstrates the adaptability of Islam to different contexts and situations.

The Quran is a timeless and comprehensive guide for Muslims, providing guidance for all aspects of life.Makki Surahs emphasize the oneness of God (Tawhid) and the rejection of polytheism (Shirk). They frequently address the concepts of resurrection, the Day of Judgment, and the consequences of one’s actions in the hereafter. For example, Surah Al-Baqara (the second Surah of the Quran) touches on these themes extensively, urging believers to have faith in God’s mercy and the consequences of disbelief.

The distinction between Makki and Madni Surahs is a crucial one, as it helps to understand the historical context and the evolving needs of the early Muslim community. The Makki Surahs emphasize fundamental theological and moral concepts, while the Madni Surahs provide practical guidance on legal, social, and political matters. Many Makki Surahs contain stories of previous prophets, such as Prophet Ibrahim (Abraham), Prophet Musa (Moses), and Prophet Nuh (Noah). These stories serve as moral lessons, demonstrating the trials and tribulations faced by these prophets and the steadfastness of their faith in the face of adversity.

These two categories represent the phases of the Quran’s revelation, with Makki Surahs being revealed in Mecca and Madni Surahs being revealed in Medina. Understanding the differences and similarities between these two phases is crucial for a comprehensive comprehension of the Quran’s message and the historical context in which it was revealed. In this article, we will delve into the characteristics, themes, and significance of Makki and Madni Surahs.

In addition, Makki surah describes the previous nations and the causes for which they were rewarded or punished. They also discuss paradise and hellfire and the deeds that can lead to heaven and hellfire. Many Makki Surahs emphasize the concept of monotheism and the oneness of God. They stress the rejection of polytheism and the worship of multiple deities.

Makki Surahs often provide spiritual guidance and solace to believers, reassuring them that God is aware of their struggles and that their faith will be rewarded. They encourage patience, perseverance, and trust in God’s plan.

Characteristics of Makki Surahs 

Makki surah was revealed in the early time of Islam. Characteristics of Makki surah are as follows;

  • Makki surah has described the oneness of Allah Almighty.
  • In Makki surah, people are addressed by the name ‘o sons of Adam.’
  • In these surahs, beliefs that should be changed are discussed.
  • These surahs have a stylistic approach that can create a vivid look at the premises needed to be changed.

The early Muslim community in Mecca faced significant persecution from the Quraysh, the dominant tribe in the city. Makki Surahs address the challenges and trials faced by the Prophet Muhammad and his followers during this period. These Surahs provide comfort, encouragement, and guidance for the persecuted community.

Makki Surahs often address the concept of the Day of Judgment, warning people of the consequences of their actions and emphasizing the need for accountability in the Hereafter.

Makki Surahs List

makki surah in quran

Surah NumberSurah NameNumber of VersesDisagreement
1Al-Fatiha (The Opening)7Disputed
2Al Ana’aam (Cattle)165
3A’raaf (The Heights)206
4Yoonus (Jonah)209
5Hood (Hud)123
6Yusuf (Juseph)111
7Ibrahim (Abrahim)52
8Al Hijr (The Rocky Tract)99
9Nah’l (Bee)128Disputed
10Bani Israeel (The Children of Israel)111
11Kahf (The Cave)110
12Maryam (Mary)98
13Taha (Taha)135
14Al Ambiya (The Prophets)112
15Al Mu’minoon (Believers)118
16Furqaan (Criterion of Wrong and Right)77
17Shu’a’raa (Poets)227
18A Namal (Ant)93
19Qasas (Story)88
20Ankaboot (Spider)69Disputed
21Ar-Rum (Romans)60
22Luqmaan (Luqmaan)34
23Sajadah (Prostration)30
24Al Ahzaab
25Saba (Sabaa)54
26Fatir (Angles)45
27Yasin (Yaseen)83
28Sahaa’f’aat (Those who sets the ranks)182
29Saa’d (Saad)88
30Zumur (Troops)75
31Mu’min (The Believers)85
32Fussilat (They are exposed)54
33Shuuraa (Counsel)53
34Zukhruf (Ornaments of Gold)89
35Dakhaan (Smoke)59
36Jaasiya (Crouching)37
37Al Ahqaaf (Wind Curved Sandhills)35
38Qaaf (Quf)45
39Zaariyat (Winnowing Winds) 60
40Toor (The Mount)55
41Najm (Star)62
42Al waqiyah (Event)96
43Al Mulk (Sovereignty))30
44Al Qalam (Pen)52
45Al Haaqqah (Reality)52
46Ma’raj (Ascending Stairways)44
47Noah (Nuh)28
48Jinn (Jin)28
49Muzammil (Enshrouded One)20
50Mudassir (Cloaded One)56
51Al Qiyamah (The Rising of the Dead)40
52Al Mursalat (Emissaries)50
53An Nabaa (Tidings)40
54An Nazia;at (Those who drag forth)46
55Abas (He frowned)42Disputed
56At takvir (Overthrowing)29
57Al Infitar (Cleaving)19
58Mutaffifeen (The Stinters)36Disputed
59Inshiqaq (Sundering)25
60Al Borooj (Mansions of the Stars)22
61At Taariq (Morning Star)17
62Al Aa’laa (Most High)19
63Al Ghashiya (Over Whelming)26
64Al Fajar (Dawn)30Disputed
65Al Balad (City)20
66Ash Shams (Sun)15
67Al Lail (Night)21Disputed
68Ad Duha (Morning Hours)11
69Al Insharah (Solacee)8
70At Teen (Figg)8
71Al Alaq (Cloth)19
72Al Qadar (The Power)5Disputed
73Al Aa’diyat (Coursers)11
74Al Qaria’h (Calamity)11
75At takasur (The Rivalry in worldly increase8
76Al Asr (Declining day)3
77Al Humazah (Traducer)9
78Al Feel (Elephant)5
79Al Quraish (Winters Quraysh)4
80Al Maa’ooon (The Small kindness)7
81AL Kausar (The Abundance)3
82Al Kaafiroon (Disbelievers)6
83AL Lahab (The Palm fibre)5
84Al Ikhlaas (Unity)4Disputed
85Al Falaq (The Day Break )5Disputed
86An Naas (The Mankind)6

What are the themes of Madani surahs?

As mentioned above, the surah revealed after the Holy Prophet’s migration to Madinah is known as Madani surahs. The theme of madani surah is different fom makki surahs. These Surahs provide moral and ethical guidance for believers, encouraging them to lead virtuous lives and showing compassion to others. They also emphasize patience in the face of adversity.

When Muslims established a state under the supervision of the Holy Prophet Hazrat Muhammad PBUH, they needed to rectify their daily life practices. So in Madani surah, norms are discussed that are required to be used by a person as Muslim. While the Makki Surahs provide the spiritual and ethical foundations of Islam, the Madni Surahs offer the legal and social framework for a Muslim society. They deal with issues related to governance, family law, charity, and relations with other communities.

Madni Surahs, on the other hand, refer to the chapters of the Quran revealed after the migration of the Prophet Muhammad to the city of Medina. These Surahs tend to have a more legislative and practical focus, dealing with issues related to community life, governance, and social justice. The Madni phase of the Quran’s revelation marked a transition from the spiritual and theological themes of the Makki phase to a more comprehensive guide for the nascent Muslim community.

Madni Surahs contain detailed laws and regulations related to various aspects of daily life, including family matters, economic transactions, criminal justice, and social welfare. For instance, Surah Al-Baqara addresses issues like inheritance, marriage, and trade.

The list of the topic discussed in Madani surahs is following. 

  • Rules about different life topics such as war, prayers, zakat, fasting, etc.
  • Discussion about hypocrites present in Madinah.
  • Punishments for violation of rules.
  • Dealing with one another in different matters.

Madani Surah in Quran

The surahs that were revealed after the migration of the Holy Prophet Hazrat Muhammad from Mecca to Madinah are known as Madani surahs. Out of 114 28 surahs are Madani surah. The distinction between Makki and Madni Surahs is primarily based on their historical context. The Makki Surahs were revealed during the early years of the Prophet’s mission when the Muslim community was a persecuted minority in Makkah. In contrast, the Madni Surahs were revealed during the later years when the Muslim community had grown in number and had established a foothold in Madinah.

Muslims built a state under the supervision of the Holy Prophet Hazrat Muhammad PBUH. There was a need for laws which were needed to run Muslim society. The rules before Madani surah’s revelation were not good enough, so Allah Almighty re-defined them. The Makki Surahs primarily focus on fundamental theological and moral concepts, emphasizing monotheism, the Day of Judgment, and patience in the face of persecution. The Madni Surahs, on the other hand, address specific legal, social, and political issues, providing guidance for the practical aspects of governing a Muslim community.

Madni Surahs, on the other hand, were revealed after the Prophet Muhammad’s migration to the city of Madinah in 622 CE. This period spans the last ten years of the Prophet’s life, from 622 to 632 CE. The Madni Surahs are generally longer and more detailed, often addressing specific legal, social, and political issues faced by the Muslim community in Madinah.

These Surahs also address issues related to social justice, ethics, and community building. They establish principles of justice, equity, and fairness, emphasizing the importance of caring for the less fortunate. For example, Surah Al-Ma’idah addresses issues of justice and the prohibition of interest (usury).

Allah Almighty revealed the rules that are needed to run the Islamic society. The main topics in Madani surahs are family relations, inheritance, monetary laws, and morals required to build a healthy community. Allah Almighty used the term Jihad and defined some conditions in which it was permissible. Since the Makki period was marked by intense persecution of early Muslims by the Quraysh (the dominant tribe in Makkah), many Makki Surahs offer solace and support to the oppressed Muslim community.

Characteristics of Madani Surah

Characteristics of Madani surah are as follows;

  • Madani surahs describe the ways which should be adopted for life.
  • In Madani surahs, social commitments are discussed.
  • Madani surahs have well-defined laws that are needed for society.
  • In these surahs, people are addressed by the name ‘o believers’.

Given the diversity of the Medina community, Madni Surahs provide guidance on conflict resolution and the peaceful coexistence of various groups. Surah Al-Hujurat, for instance, provides instructions on resolving disputes and maintaining social harmony.

Madani Surahs List

Madani Surahs in Quran

Surah NumberSurah NameNumber of VersesDisagreement
1Al Baqarah (Cow)286
2Aal Imran (The Damily of Imran)200
3An Nisa (The women)176
4Al Maaeda (Table Spread)120
5Anfaal (The Spoils of war)75
6Tawuba (The repentance)129
7Ra’ad (Thunder)43Disputed
8Al Hajj (Pilgrimage)78Disputed
9Al Noor (The Light)64
10Al Ahzaab (Clans)73
11Muhammad (Muhammad)38Disputed
12Fat-h (The Victory)29
13Hujurat (Private apartments)18
14Ar Rahmaan (Benficent)78Disputed
15Al Hadeed (The Iron)29
16Al majaadalah (Shee that disputeth)22
17Al Hashr (The exile)24
18Al mumtahina (Shee that is to be examined)22
19Sa’af (Ranks)14Disputed
20Jummah (Congregation)11
21Munafiqoon (Hyopcrits)11
22Taghabun (The mutual disillusion)18Disputed
23Talaq (The divorce)12
24Tehreem (The banning)12
25Al Insaan (The Man)31Disputed
26Bayyinah (Clear Proof)8Disputed
27Al Zilzaal (Earthquake)8Disputed
28An Nasr (The succour)3Disputed

Difference between Makki and Madani Surahs

Makki and Madani surahs have apparent differences between themselves.

  • Makki surah has a detailed description of beliefs, and Madani surah has a detailed description of social duties.
  • Makki surah has short verses, and Madani surah has long verses. Makki Surahs often invite people to embrace Islam, calling them to monotheism and rejecting the idols and practices of the time.
  • Makki surah has stories of the previous nation, and Madani surah doesn’t have those stories.
  • Makki surahs are relatively short, and Madani surahs are rather long. The Madni Surahs often contain detailed guidance on legal and juridical matters, including issues related to marriage, divorce, inheritance, and criminal law. They provide a framework for the governance of a Muslim society.
  • 26 Makki surahs start with Muqatteat, while only two Madani surahs start with them. These Surahs address the evolving social and community aspects of the growing Muslim ummah (community) in Madinah. They provide guidance on issues such as charity, community cohesion, and interactions with non-Muslims.
  • The theme of Makki surah defines the belief in Allah’s oneness. Compared with Madani surah, their theme is to develop a society of good moral values. The Madni Surahs also address the practical challenges faced by the early Muslim community in Madinah, including the need to defend themselves against hostile forces. These Surahs provide guidance on warfare and self-defense.
  • In Makki surahs, verses in which sujud is necessary are present, whereas in Madani surahs, verses in which sujud is essential are not. 

Frequently Asked Questions(FAQs)

Q. How can we differentiate Makki and Madani surahs in Quran?

Answer. Makki surahs are short and are primarily about Tauheed, whereas Madani surahs are relatively long and about how to live in society.

Q. Which surah is called the bride of the Holy Quran?

Answer. Surah Ar Rahman is called the bride of the Holy Quran. Given that the Muslim community in Madinah interacted with various Jewish and Arabian tribes, the Madni Surahs contain guidance on how to interact with other communities, emphasizing justice and peaceful coexistence.

Q. Why is it important to differentiate between Makki and Madani Surahs in Quran?

Answer. It is essential to differentiate between Makki and Madani surahs in Quran because if we want to understand the context of ayah, we need to know whether it is a Makki ayah or a Madani ayah. The Madni period marked the establishment of the first Islamic state in Madinah. The Madni Surahs played a crucial role in shaping the foundations of Islamic governance, emphasizing justice, equity, and the importance of consultation (Shura).

Q. In which surah is Bismillah present two times?

Answer. Surah Namal has two times bismillah. The Madni Surahs can be seen as the practical implementation of the principles established in the Makki Surahs. They address the specific challenges faced by the Muslim community in Madinah and provide guidance for the development of a comprehensive and just social and legal system.

Final Words

As we know, the Holy Quran was sent in parts and collected afterward. Makki and Madani surahs in Quran are categorized based on where the Holy Prophet Hazrat Muhammad was present when those surahs were revealed. 

In the Madni phase, the Quran addresses the relationships between the Muslim community and other religious groups, such as Jews and Christians. It emphasizes the importance of dialogue and cooperation, as well as the protection of religious freedoms.

The Quran, as the holy book of Islam, is a multifaceted scripture that addresses various aspects of life, from spirituality and theology to law and governance. The division into Makki and Madni Surahs helps us understand the Quran’s progressive revelation and the evolving needs of the Muslim community during the time of the Prophet Muhammad.

Makki Surahs lay the spiritual and moral foundation of Islam, emphasizing the oneness of God, the concept of the Day of Judgment, and the perseverance of faith in the face of adversity. Madni Surahs, on the other hand, provide practical guidance on governance, justice, community life, and relationships with other religious communities.

In Makki surahs, the central theme is the oneness of Allah Almighty, and along with that, they discussed the stories of previous prophets. In contrast, Madani surahs discussed various orders related to social life battles, etc. In this article, I have guided you about these surahs and their categorization.

Both phases are integral to the Quran’s message, offering a balanced and comprehensive guide for Muslims to navigate their spiritual and worldly affairs. By studying and understanding the differences and similarities between Makki and Madni Surahs, we can gain a deeper appreciation of the Quran’s timeless wisdom and relevance in our lives today.

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