Being a Muslim, it is essential to have basic knowledge of the Quran. To study them well, you need to know Makki and Madani Surahs in Quran. It is pleasant to hear whether the orator tells about the surah, whether it is Makki or Madani Surahs.
These surahs are categorized based on where Holy Prophet Hazrat Muhammad PBUH resided when surahs were revealed. One hundred fourteen surahs in total are present in the Holy Quran. Most surahs are Makki surahs, as Holy Prophet Hazrat Muhammad PBUH spent 13 years of his prophethood in Mecca.
Some surahs were revealed after the migration of the Holy Prophet Hazrat Muhammad PBUH to Madinah. He spent ten years of prophethood in Madinah. So, the surahs are categorized in this way. In this article, I will give you a detailed description of the knowledge of Makki and Madani Surahs in the Quran.
What are Makki and Madani Surahs?
Islam was completed in 23 years. The prophethood of Hazrat Muhammad PBUH was divided into two periods. One period was spent in Mecca, and the other was in Madinah. Hazrat Gabriel sent the Holy Quran throughout the whole time.
The part of the Holy Quran revealed in Mecca is called Makki surah, and the Part of the Quran revealed in Madinah is called Madani surahs. Both these surah cover topics that are entirely different from one another and contain different types of information
What are the themes of Makki Surahs?
In the early days of Islam, it was essential to guide the people about the oneness of Allah Almighty. So, the theme of Makki surahs is different form madani surahs. When we compare Makki and Madani surahs in Quran, we can see that the topics discussed in Makki surah are not the same as those of Madani surahs.
It was essential to rectify the image of Allah in the Holy City as people worshipped idols and were not ready to accept the revival of the religion of Hazrat Ibrahim, so Makki surah has verses that covered the topic of sole power belonging to Allah Almighty.
Makki surah covers the following topics
- Oneness of Allah
- Paradise/ hell
- Comfort to Holy Prophet PBUH
- Stories of previous nations
- Rewards and punishments for the people who believed in Islam.
Makki Surah in Quran
The surah revealed when Prophet Hazrat Muhammad PBUH was present in Mecca is known as Makki surah. In Holy Quran, out of 114 surahs, 86 surahs are Makki surahs. These surahs describe the beliefs that needed to be changed. The main point in Makki surah is about the oneness of Allah Almighty. People of Mecca believed in multiple gods, so it was necessary to change this belief, which was the top priority. Holy Prophet preached people of Mecca about the oneness of god.
In addition, Makki surah describes the previous nations and the causes for which they were rewarded or punished. They also discuss paradise and hellfire and the deeds that can lead to heaven and hellfire.
Characteristics of Makki Surahs
Makki surah was revealed in the early time of Islam. Characteristics of Makki surah are as follows;
- Makki surah has described the oneness of Allah Almighty.
- In Makki surah, people are addressed by the name ‘o sons of Adam.’
- In these surahs, beliefs that should be changed are discussed.
- These surahs have a stylistic approach that can create a vivid look at the premises needed to be changed.
Makki Surahs List
|Surah Number||Surah Name||Number of Verses||Disagreement|
|1||Al-Fatiha (The Opening)||7||Disputed|
|2||Al Ana’aam (Cattle)||165|
|3||A’raaf (The Heights)||206|
|8||Al Hijr (The Rocky Tract)||99|
|10||Bani Israeel (The Children of Israel)||111|
|11||Kahf (The Cave)||110|
|14||Al Ambiya (The Prophets)||112|
|15||Al Mu’minoon (Believers)||118|
|16||Furqaan (Criterion of Wrong and Right)||77|
|18||A Namal (Ant)||93|
|28||Sahaa’f’aat (Those who sets the ranks)||182|
|31||Mu’min (The Believers)||85|
|32||Fussilat (They are exposed)||54|
|34||Zukhruf (Ornaments of Gold)||89|
|37||Al Ahqaaf (Wind Curved Sandhills)||35|
|39||Zaariyat (Winnowing Winds)||60|
|40||Toor (The Mount)||55|
|42||Al waqiyah (Event)||96|
|43||Al Mulk (Sovereignty))||30|
|44||Al Qalam (Pen)||52|
|45||Al Haaqqah (Reality)||52|
|46||Ma’raj (Ascending Stairways)||44|
|49||Muzammil (Enshrouded One)||20|
|50||Mudassir (Cloaded One)||56|
|51||Al Qiyamah (The Rising of the Dead)||40|
|52||Al Mursalat (Emissaries)||50|
|53||An Nabaa (Tidings)||40|
|54||An Nazia;at (Those who drag forth)||46|
|55||Abas (He frowned)||42||Disputed|
|56||At takvir (Overthrowing)||29|
|57||Al Infitar (Cleaving)||19|
|58||Mutaffifeen (The Stinters)||36||Disputed|
|60||Al Borooj (Mansions of the Stars)||22|
|61||At Taariq (Morning Star)||17|
|62||Al Aa’laa (Most High)||19|
|63||Al Ghashiya (Over Whelming)||26|
|64||Al Fajar (Dawn)||30||Disputed|
|65||Al Balad (City)||20|
|66||Ash Shams (Sun)||15|
|67||Al Lail (Night)||21||Disputed|
|68||Ad Duha (Morning Hours)||11|
|69||Al Insharah (Solacee)||8|
|70||At Teen (Figg)||8|
|71||Al Alaq (Cloth)||19|
|72||Al Qadar (The Power)||5||Disputed|
|73||Al Aa’diyat (Coursers)||11|
|74||Al Qaria’h (Calamity)||11|
|75||At takasur (The Rivalry in worldly increase||8|
|76||Al Asr (Declining day)||3|
|77||Al Humazah (Traducer)||9|
|78||Al Feel (Elephant)||5|
|79||Al Quraish (Winters Quraysh)||4|
|80||Al Maa’ooon (The Small kindness)||7|
|81||AL Kausar (The Abundance)||3|
|82||Al Kaafiroon (Disbelievers)||6|
|83||AL Lahab (The Palm fibre)||5|
|84||Al Ikhlaas (Unity)||4||Disputed|
|85||Al Falaq (The Day Break )||5||Disputed|
|86||An Naas (The Mankind)||6|
What are the themes of Madani surahs?
As mentioned above, the surah revealed after the Holy Prophet’s migration to Madinah is known as Madani surahs. The theme of madani surah is different fom makki surahs. When Muslims established a state under the supervision of the Holy Prophet Hazrat Muhammad PBUH, they needed to rectify their daily life practices. So in Madani surah, norms are discussed that are required to be used by a person as Muslim.
The list of the topic discussed in Madani surahs is following.
- Rules about different life topics such as war, prayers, zakat, fasting, etc.
- Discussion about hypocrites present in Madinah.
- Punishments for violation of rules.
- Dealing with one another in different matters.
Madani Surah in Quran
The surahs that were revealed after the migration of the Holy Prophet Hazrat Muhammad from Mecca to Madinah are known as Madani surahs. Out of 114 28 surahs are Madani surah. Muslims built a state under the supervision of the Holy Prophet Hazrat Muhammad PBUH. There was a need for laws which were needed to run Muslim society. The rules before Madani surah’s revelation were not good enough, so Allah Almighty re-defined them.
Allah Almighty revealed the rules that are needed to run the Islamic society. The main topics in Madani surahs are family relations, inheritance, monetary laws, and morals required to build a healthy community. Allah Almighty used the term Jihad and defined some conditions in which it was permissible.
Characteristics of Madani Surah
Characteristics of Madani surah are as follows;
- Madani surahs describe the ways which should be adopted for life.
- In Madani surahs, social commitments are discussed.
- Madani surahs have well-defined laws that are needed for society.
- In these surahs, people are addressed by the name ‘o believers’.
Madani Surahs List
|Surah Number||Surah Name||Number of Verses||Disagreement|
|1||Al Baqarah (Cow)||286|
|2||Aal Imran (The Damily of Imran)||200|
|3||An Nisa (The women)||176|
|4||Al Maaeda (Table Spread)||120|
|5||Anfaal (The Spoils of war)||75|
|6||Tawuba (The repentance)||129|
|8||Al Hajj (Pilgrimage)||78||Disputed|
|9||Al Noor (The Light)||64|
|10||Al Ahzaab (Clans)||73|
|12||Fat-h (The Victory)||29|
|13||Hujurat (Private apartments)||18|
|14||Ar Rahmaan (Benficent)||78||Disputed|
|15||Al Hadeed (The Iron)||29|
|16||Al majaadalah (Shee that disputeth)||22|
|17||Al Hashr (The exile)||24|
|18||Al mumtahina (Shee that is to be examined)||22|
|22||Taghabun (The mutual disillusion)||18||Disputed|
|23||Talaq (The divorce)||12|
|24||Tehreem (The banning)||12|
|25||Al Insaan (The Man)||31||Disputed|
|26||Bayyinah (Clear Proof)||8||Disputed|
|27||Al Zilzaal (Earthquake)||8||Disputed|
|28||An Nasr (The succour)||3||Disputed|
Difference between Makki and Madani Surahs
Makki and Madani surahs have apparent differences between themselves.
- Makki surah has a detailed description of beliefs, and Madani surah has a detailed description of social duties.
- Makki surah has short verses, and Madani surah has long verses.
- Makki surah has stories of the previous nation, and Madani surah doesn’t have those stories.
- Makki surahs are relatively short, and Madani surahs are rather long.
- 26 Makki surahs start with Muqatteat, while only two Madani surahs start with them.
- The theme of Makki surah defines the belief in Allah’s oneness. Compared with Madani surah, their theme is to develop a society of good moral values.
- In Makki surahs, verses in which sujud is necessary are present, whereas in Madani surahs, verses in which sujud is essential are not.
Frequently Asked Questions(FAQs)
Q. How can we differentiate Makki and Madani surahs in Quran?
Answer. Makki surahs are short and are primarily about Tauheed, whereas Madani surahs are relatively long and about how to live in society.
Q. Which surah is called the bride of the Holy Quran?
Answer. Surah Ar Rahman is called the bride of the Holy Quran
Q. Why is it important to differentiate between Makki and Madani Surahs in Quran?
Answer. It is essential to differentiate between Makki and Madani surahs in Quran because if we want to understand the context of ayah, we need to know whether it is a Makki ayah or a Madani ayah.
Q. In which surah is Bismillah present two times?
Answer. Surah Namal has two times bismillah.
As we know, the Holy Quran was sent in parts and collected afterward. Makki and Madani surahs in Quran are categorized based on where the Holy Prophet Hazrat Muhammad was present when those surahs were revealed.
In Makki surahs, the central theme is the oneness of Allah Almighty, and along with that, they discussed the stories of previous prophets. In contrast, Madani surahs discussed various orders related to social life battles, etc. In this article, I have guided you about these surahs and their categorization.